Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Locantro Essay Example

Locantro Essay Relics are stays, for example, instruments gems and other human made articles Culture people groups remarkable lifestyle Hominid an individual from an organic gathering including individuals and related species that walk Paleolithic Age an ancient period that kept going from around 2,500,000 to 8000 B. C Neolithic Age an ancient period that began 8000 Technology the manners by which ppl apply information instruments and creations to address there issues Homo sapiens Homo sapiens is the logical name for the human species.Homo is the human family, which additionally incorporates Neanderthals and numerous other terminated species. Section 1 In 1992, Gen Suwa, a scientist from Japan disclosures in east Africa one of the most established primate teeth at any point found Over the following two years, extra remains were revealed like arm bones and parts of a skull and jaw that had a place with 17 ppl Just 45 miles away in 1974 Donald C. Johanson and Tom Gray revealed a 3. 2 multi year old S kelton. Apparatus utilizing devices was probably the most punctual part of culture that ppl formedThe Stone Age name used to idem Homo habilis lived during first of Paleolithic period Oldest primates known to make devices Lived In Africa from around 2. 5 to 1. 5 million Language Instead of simply making sounds and motions toward show feeling and bearing Homo erectus may have been conversing with one another around 500,000 years prior Laungage was one of humanitys most noteworthy achievements What advantages did language do to humankind Made it for ppl to cooperate Enabled ppl to trade thoughts regarding the worldProvided a path for ppl to mingle proof of early Homo sapiens returns similarly as 200,000 years back Neanderthals probably the main Homo sapiens Neanderthals remained around 5,5 tall their minds were somewhat greater than todays cutting edge people Most lived in little gatherings of 35 to 50 ppl Were wanderers therefor didn't live in one spot permately Lived in caverns or o ver from bluffs Wore substantial apparel produced using creature skins to remain warm and ensured

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Vitamin C Amount Estimation By DCPIP Essays - Biomolecules, Vitamins

Nutrient C Amount Estimation By DCPIP Nutrient C (ascorbic corrosive) is a significant nutrient to the body. Nutrient C advances sound teeth and gums, helps retention of iron, guides in upkeep of ordinary connective tissue, advances wound mending, and helps support the safe framework. With nutrient C being such a valuable substance to our bodies, discovering great wellsprings of nutrient C is significant. Numerous individuals today depend on nutrient enhancement tablets. Yet, natural product juices, nutrient enhanced beverages, or nutrient enhanced nourishments may contain the same amount of nutrient C as an enhancement tablet. Which one is better however, financially sold beverages or new natural product juices? This was the inquire about inquiry: Are monetarily sold and famously expended juices (in Japan) a great substitute fro new organic products as far as dietary nutrient C? What this test tried to discover was actually what sort of drink was better in terms of dietary nutrient C. The juices were titrated into a set measure of DCPIP furthermore, estimating what number of milliliters it took for the DCPIP to abandon blue to clear. The theory was that new organic product juices ought to contain more nutrient C since they had not been heat treated and most likely had invested less energy in a rack or on the other hand being moved than economically grass drinks. This is significant since nutrient C is heat labile. This implies nutrient C is helpless to change and temperamental or that the nutrient C can separate effectively whenever presented to high temperatures or is saved for quite a while on a rack. The examination and results indicated that nutrient C is increasingly copious in new organic product juices. This was valid for all the juices tried aside from lemon. In this way, it is protected to state that new organic product juices will in general contain more nutrient C than economically purchased juices. Presentation The body needs a decent parity of nourishments, which must contain sugars, proteins, and fats alongside mineral salts, water, fiber, and nutrients. These are required in various sums as per unique individuals. Be that as it may, there are suggested every day remittances. For instance, the suggested day by day stipend for nutrient C is 60mg. Nutrients are handily ingested into the circulation system from the gut. An eating routine ailing in a specific nutrient will lead to a lack infection. Such maladies are rickets that is brought about by need of nutrient D, and night visual impairment that is brought about by absence of nutrient A. In any case, these can be helped by utilizing nutrient enhancements if the dietary admission is insufficient. The point of the trial was to see the distinction of nutrient C content between new organic product juices and industrially sold and famously devoured juices (in Japan) a great substitute for new natural products as far as dietary nutrient C? This exploration question was set up in light of the fact that in the present day and age individuals are excessively occupied, particularly in winter, to load up on new products of the soil individuals depend on economically sold beverages as a wellspring of nutrients. In any case, nutrient C, specifically, is known to be labile and along these lines prone to be missing from a prepared food diet. In calm atmospheres, for example, Japan or Europe, individuals ear new organic products in summer, yet eat tinned, saved, or cooked nourishments in the winter. The last being increasingly powerless to warm, potentially separating the measure of nutrient C in them. This examination tried for the nutrient C content in new organic product juices and economically sold beverages. This trial was directed for the most part on citrus organic products since nutrient C is supposed to be inexhaustible in citrus natural products. The trial was additionally performed on non-citrus natural products. The analyze was performed on these two sorts of natural product drinks since nutrient C adds to keeping up a solid body, particularly throughout the winter, when citrus organic products are not in season. Subsequently, the measure of nutrient C found in each kind of juice would be basic in realizing what beverages to pick during the winter to give the most or the ideal measure of nutrient C. Utilizing this data, the accompanying theory was shaped. Since nutrient C is labile (which means vulnerable to change and temperamental), the financially sold juices, which have no doubt been heat treated and put away in different conditions for different timeframes, ought to have lower nutrient C content than new organic product juices. The industrially sold juices would have in all likelihood been presented to the conditions prompting the weakening in the substance of nutrient C. In this analyze the free factors were the juices that were being tried for their nutrient C content. The volume

Monday, August 10, 2020

Biopiracy of Biodiversity

Biopiracy of Biodiversity Biopiracy of Biodiversity Global Exchange as Enclosure Home›Economics Posts›Biopiracy of Biodiversity Global Exchange as Enclosure Economics PostsTrade policies control and direct the manner in which trade is conducted among traders, organizations, corporations, communities and nations. They regulate trade between the entities or parties in agreement. The policy of free trade allows trade to take place among the traders without any form of interference from the national governments through whose borders the trade is conducted. This has opened the doors to unscrupulous actions of theft and unwarranted exportation of biological resources from the less developed countries of the world, by multinational corporations from developed countries, with the aim of gaining economic benefits and scientific development in biotechnology.All this happens at the expense of the affected indigenous communities, who have part of their natural heritage taken away from them; usually stolen, without t heir knowledge or consent. The book, “Biopiracy of Biodiversity ‘Global Exchange as Enclosure’, by Andrew Mushita and Carol B. Thompson, discuses the issue of free trade and economic globalization and how these have led to the exploitation of biodiversity natural resources owned by indigenous communities in the developing countries of southern Africa, pointing out the likely impacts on their livelihood and development.Free trade provides unhindered access to the natural resources found within the environments of the indigenous communities. Such communities tend to continue with their traditional reliance on these natural resources and thus actively involve themselves in their conservation and preservation (Mushita and Thompson 11). These traditional communities and their people are inherently tied to their biological resources, which form their food, medicine and are important part of their cultural heritage. However, international free trade has led to the opening up of these communities to multinational companies and biotechnological corporations with the intention of making business out of these bio-resources.   with the knowledge that these natural resources have the potential of providing more benefits after scientific researches in biotechnology, in addition to economic development, an understanding lacking within the local communities, these companies take advantage of the existing loopholes in free trade agreements.As noted by (Mushita and Thompson 109), “the African continent (like many of the developing nations of the world) have benefited little” from many of the trade negotiations and international trade policies proposed and advocated for by the World Trade Organization. An apparent fact that is explicitly outlined is the ineffectiveness of international free trade to guarantee protection of the natural resources depended upon by the local communities, which are part and parcel of their cultural “wealth”, from being taken and “loot ed by force” by influential corporations (Mushita and Thompson 15). In essence, free trade has contributed to the increasing exploitation of natural resources and their biodiversity through “biopiracy” in the less developed nations, particularly due to the fact that interference by the respective governments is not encouraged under this trade policy (Mushita and Thompson 155).In removing the interference of governments from the economic relations between trading partners across its borders, free trade brings about the harmful state of unsupervised trading of biological resources. Under this circumstance, free trade is likely to fuel proliferation of biopiracy. As illustrated under part one of the book â€" “sharing and theft” â€" “biopirates” take away the biological resources in a variety of natural forms including indigenous plants and even microbes without consent from the people and their governments (Mushita and Thompson 16).Furthermore, free trade provides the opp ortunity of patenting these bio-resources and the products generated from them, giving the sole rights of utilization and advanced processing of the natural resources to these corporations. Biotechnology companies from the developed world, with immense resources available for scientific research on indigenous resources have taken advantage of these loopholes to privatize these resources. These negative and harmful effects of free trade result from lack of government intervention as clearly indicated by (Mushita and Thompson 166).In addition to making the “stolen” bio-resources part of their intellectual property, the corporations do not share accrued economic benefits with the indigenous communities who were the original owners and custodians of the natural resources. Rather than ensure the continued growth, support and sustenance of these traditional communities, such corporations seek to secure their utilization of the biological resources by acquiring “private intellectual property rights” as the real owners (Mushita and Thompson 219). The patenting of biological resources denies the developing countries the opportunity of utilizing their inherent natural recourses for economic development in the case where such property rights over the same biological resources have already been acquired by private international companies.   With the increasing liberalization of the global markets and expansion of economic globalization, the developing countries of Southern Africa and the region as whole, are increasingly becoming more open to such exploitation from biopiracy and undue exploitation of their natural resources.As pointed out by Mushita and Thompson   (76), the WTO and its trade policy on intellectual property under TRIPS, do little to safeguard developing countries and their communities who are highly vulnerable to biopiracy and its effects. TRIPS outlines the acquisition and protection of intellectual property but does not take into consideration co mmunal rights, which are essential to protection of the communal biological resources existing within these African communities.   As conjectured by Mushita and Thompson (220), “communal rights” over biodiversity and natural resources by the respective traditional communities recognized as the primary custodians and conservers, should be considered “as legitimate as private rights” to ensure that they are protected from   theft.One of the major impacts of biopiracy and subsequent acquisition of intellectual rights under the operating free trade policies is the denial of the affected governments and their people ownership of the resources and their future incorporation in their nation’s economic development. Apparently, under the WTO, TRIPS “does not recognize national sovereignty over biological resources” while recognizing “private property rights” as outlined by Mushita and Thompson (187). With this policy loopholes exist giving the multinationals corporations op portunity to easily acquire the legal ownership of these resources. Thus having acquired the rights over the use of these resources at the international level, the companies can easily curtail any further development on these resources by the African communities and their countries from where they were taken. Free trade impacts on the future economic growth and sustainable development through these resources by opening opportunity of transferring ownership rights to private corporations (Mushita and Thompson 187).The traditional communities not only have part of their cultural heritage stolen from them, but also find themselves “deprived of their own means of subsistence” (Mushita and Thompson 224). These communities have the rights to enjoy their benefits generated from the same resources they have endeavored to guard and preserve for many years. As the custodians of the same resources, they are the ones with the property rights over the same; a fact that should be recognized b y the relevant intellectual property policies and legislation (Mushita and Thompson 220). Taking away of the natural resources, undermines their rights and the fact that part of their wealth is stealthily taken without their knowledge and consent. The case is made even worse with the acquisition of property rights by the companies at the global level. As noted by Mushita and Thompson (16) biopiracy also hampers their continued use of their own resources.In some cases, scarce bio-resources are heavily harvested by the corporations or even the governments for manufacturing purposes which denies the local community adequate access and use of these resources. Vulnerable resources in this category are illustrated by Mushita and Thompson (11) to fall within the category of medicinal plants, seeds and roots. Overexploitation of these plants and their seeds denies the traditional healers effective use in making traditional medicine for healing within the community  (Mushita and Thompson 11) . Multinational biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies on the other hand, reap huge profits from the manufactured drugs produced using the indigenous plants, at the expense of the local African communities. Indigenous people have the right to also benefit from profits and economic gains made from such developments facilitated by their local natural resources as stated by Mushita and Thompson (224), which however is not usually the case. It also negates the advances made by the traditional body of indigenous knowledge systems in conserving the particular biological resources over the years according to Mushita and Thompson (209).Free trade has also allowed the introduction of genetically modified organisms that pose adverse effects on the indigenous plants, threatening their continued growth and regeneration. With the ability and capacity to interact freely with the local communities under free trade, companies introduce genetically modified seeds to the local and traditional African farmers, which hamper the existence of some of the biological resources innate to the communities. Genetically modified plants can interact with the indigenous plants through pollination as pointed out by Mushita and Thompson (43) and subsequently alter their natural state that existed before the introduction of the new species.The book provides a clear illustration of free trade and its operations at the global stage, as well as its impact at the community level. Without government intervention, free trade provides lease to economic exploitation of biodiversity owned by the indigenous communities of southern Africa though biopriracy and acquisition of intellectual property rights of the same at the global level, consequently denying the real owners any rights over their use. As noted by the authors, much needs to be done in ensuring the local communities have their indigenous resources protected from possible adverse effects of economic globalization and its trade policies providing leeway for their exploitation.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Final Solution Adolf Hitler - 582 Words

Complicity is defined as helping commit a crime or being involved in a wrongdoing. This is a story that awakens the conscience of a nation. After the Kristallnauch (also known as the â€Å"Night of Broken Glass†), the Germans wanted to expedite the pace of the Jewish emigration. They wanted to prove that the unwillingness of other nations to accept a large amount of Jewish refugees would justify Hitler’s â€Å"Final Solution†. When you think of a cruise ship, you think of a vacation with your family and friends, with gourmet food and exotic beaches. However, the voyage of the S.S. St. Louis that sailed from Hamburg, Germany to Havana, Cuba had a different cause. All of the Jews that were onboard were fleeing from the Third Reich; they called it the â€Å"voyage to freedom†. 937 Jews boarded the ship with the hope of finding a new home away from Hitler’s philosophies. The voyage of the S.S. St. Louis was known as â€Å"The Voyage of the Damned† because they were turned away by the countries they approached, which brings me to the big question, did the abandonment of countries have an impact on Hitler’s â€Å"Final Solution† to eliminate the Jews? On May 13, 1939, St. Louis left Germany sailing towards, what they thought would be safe haven. The Jewish refugees fled from the persecutions from Nazi Germany with purchased visas, and they planned to stay in Cuba until they could enter the United States. The captain knew that they might have difficulties disembarking in Cuba. Then once theyShow MoreRelatedGenocide : A Complex Item1569 Words   |  7 Pageshelps keep people afraid of their superiors. Although using genocide as a solution is a very harsh choice of action, it has helped keep populations of races down, and has also shown civilians what the power of their government is. The purpose of keeping the civilians in order is so that there are no uprisings, or rebellions. 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These gas chambers were large rooms that would deposit gases such as carbonRead MoreWhy Adolf Hitler Was A Great Leader1200 Words   |  5 PagesLepsig English IV 31 March 2015 Why Adolf Hitler Was A Great Leader. Can you really call a Murderer a Great Leader? A â€Å"Great Leader† Can be define as a leader who is self aware, self direct, socially aware, visionary, and having the ability to motivate one. Adolf Hitler is self aware, self direct, socially aware, visionary, and having the ability to motivate. From what we know for being a Great Leader we can say Adolf Hitler was a Great Leader. I believe that Hitler was a indeed a â€Å"Great Leader†. Read MoreAdolf Hitler Was A Bad Man827 Words   |  4 PagesMarch 21, 2017 Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler was a bad man who did many bad things in his lifetime. He was responsible for the Holocaust and for World War II. Who was Adolf Hitler? What motivated him as dictator of Germany? What did he do in the course of his lifetime? Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th, 1889. He was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, of German descent (Hitler). Hitler s father s original name was Schicklgruber but he changed it in 1876 to Hitler (Adolf). Hitler had three sistersRead MoreAdolf Hitler, The Leader Of The Nazi Party1153 Words   |  5 PagesAdolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party, had his army kill 6-11 million people. These victims varied from gypsies, homosexuals, handicapped, Jews, and more. As stated by Adolf on his autobiography Mein Kampf, he believed that he was doing God’s work by exterminating the Jews. â€Å"...By defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.† (Mein Kampf). His early life, education, and military training all have a crucial role in his rise to power during WWII. Hitler was born onRead MoreAdolf Hitlers Oppression of the German people Essay1716 Words   |  7 Pageslater and the name Adolf Hitler still rings volumes till this present day: discussed in history books, talked about amongst intellects and commoners alike, and despised by many for years to come. Upon hearing his name many may think of all the negative things Hitler has done, but few fail to analyze just how one man created such controversy amongst a nation without being stopped. The question then lies how does a man reign over country and devastate it for years to come? Adolf Hitler, a man who excelledRead MoreThe Holocaust, By Robert Burns1121 Words   |  5 PagesGermany led by Adolf Hitler from 1939 to 1945. There were millions of people that were cycled through the concentration camps that the Nazis built. The millions of people that were killed are just a small portion of the billions that were indirectly impacted by the horrible actions of the Nazis. I believe that Nazi G ermany performed inhumane acts on the people that they put into the concentration camps, therefore indirectly affecting millions, possibly billions, of people. When Adolf Hitler came onto

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

General Law in Society - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1398 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Contents Introduction The humans and their own discipline, which protected them naturally The weaker is attacked by stronger The important characteristic of the Law of this situation My personal views on characteristic of Law in present society Conclusion Bibliography Introduction This assignment related on the subject of General Law, which I have to clarify about à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Human, are naturally protected by their own discipline. However, sometimes weaker is attacked by stronger. The law is playing a significant role in this situation.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  The main determination to explain this topic is not only gets the full marks, but also explain the importance role of Law in the society while the conflicts arise. Since the human necessaries are advanced, the society has become complicated. Religious teaches the ethics of the society for resolving the conflicts, but sometimes weaker is attacked by stronger. In accordance with my personal views that is happening because of craving as well as ignorance of human beings. I hope to describe the main reasons to weaker attack by stronger as well as the importance of the Law with special reference of branches of Law, Human rights and Buddhist concepts. The humans and their own discipline, which protected them naturally Since we born our parents teach us what is right and wrong. Therefore, they are known as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Pubbacariya.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Buddha has mentioned that as following; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Brahamati mata pitaro-Pubbacariyatiuaccareà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [1] Buddha has mentioned in the sutta that the parents are à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Mahabrahamaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [2] who become the first teacher in our life. According to the secondly and thirdly, we meet schoolteacher, friends etcà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ in our life. Their advices can consider as the own disciplines which protect us naturally in the society. After that, we are well known about good and bad. If someones behavior with good habits he will protected by his own good deeds. Buddhism has also mentioned about that as follows. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Dhammaohave Rakkhati Dhammacarià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  [3] Therefore, most people tried to live with good because they wanted to be protected in society. Let us explain this w ith best example. I am a monk from Nepal. If I behave badly, my high priest will punish me, therefore I do not do bad deeds in society. The concept that I have that I should not do bad deeds, which have given by parents that are calling my own discipline. To conclude this subtopic if someone behaves with good discipline in the society, there are no nay chance to get punished him or get in troubles. Then let we move to next topics, where I hope to discuss the real situation in the present world. The weaker is attacked by stronger The word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“weakerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which has different meaning that I used to write this assignment. Here I have indicated the meaning of weaker as weak in physical, wealth, politics, education money etc. The real situation of present world looks like the rule of the jungle. According to the rule of the jungle the small animal are foods for powerful, strong animals. Deer is the meal of lion. Here lion is strong by physical power, therefo re it eats deer. However, we are human we have equal rights to live in the society. The human rights can be defined as below Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "General Law in Society" essay for you Create order The rights you have simply because you are human. A person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being Although these kinds of more article indicate about the importance of human rights in the society, the crime is increasing day by day. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Everyone has rights to entitled to crime charge, full equal, fair and public hearing etc.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  [4] à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Not attack upon his honor and reputation.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [5] Although the society has mentioned these rights, the crime is increasing in the present world. The people are using their power to kill innocent people. They used the power of politicians to release from the jails. When the person becomes rich, he/she tried to run the rules of the jungle. The next discussion point will be if people are trying to run the rule of the jungle, then how does the Law become important to eradicate problems from the world. The important characteristic of the Law of this situation à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“All people are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of law.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [6] While the str onger people trying to establish the rule of the jungle, the Law plays an important character in the society. As I have mentioned above that everyone are equal before the law. People made a law for their protection; therefore, the law has divided into main two parts. If someone has done Murder Cheating Assault Theft Threaten Rape Smuggling is coming under the crime of a criminalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s actions. In addition, another part is civil actions. Law of property Law of Contract Mercantile Law Law of Delist or Tort Family Law Labor or Industrial Law If anyone has done these crimes, he/she will punish by the Law. The article describes further that no citizen shall be discriminated against on the grounds of race, religion, language, caste, sex, political opinion, place of birth or any of such grounds[7]. Here the significant character of the law can be seen in this article. The criminal might be the president of the country, he will punished by the law. Therefore, when the people tried to come out with jungle rules the Law plays an exceptional role in the society. In short, Law is equal for all citizens. My personal views on characteristic of Law in present society Actually, according to my personal views the Law in modern society is an illusion. The illusion means you can see, but there is nothing in the reality. Let us discuss some usage of articles on human rights. Article 9th This talk about à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“no one shall be arrested without any reason of crime. According to these human rights, I feel that this is illusory in the society. Police arrest the innocent people and torture them to know the truth. I feel that the law is blind. Therefore, they are arresting innocent people. They might be criminals, but if they were not criminals then who will take the responsibilities of arrest and torture. Actually, we can see the Law in the society but the people has overused it, which converted to misuse. Article 10th Everyone has rights to entitled to crime charge, full equal, fair and public hearing etc. Article 11th This article talks about the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty. However, before they proved guilty the police have already hit him and forced him to accept the crime. Article 12th Not an attack upon his honor and reputation. The politicians are always doing this crime. Therefore, I asked what the meaning of having Law in the society. That is the main reasons for saying that the Law is an illusion as well as for poor people. According to the present situation, the law is similar to Matshaya Naya or the rule of the jungle. These all Law is benefits for rich people. When poor people broke the law, then that, are criminals, but for rich people it is an accident. Conclusion As a conclusion, I would mention that the law is an illusion as well as for poor people. I agree that human are naturally protected by his or her own disciplines. At that, time weaker attacked by stronger, but law will affect only those who are poor and cannot by Law. I believe that if you are stronger you are the Law in the present situation. Although the law has sold and turned into jungle rules, but somehow law plays significant roles in the society. Therefore, what I suggest is give you kind cooperation to protect law in the society. Do not try to buy it, which turns into jungle rules. Bibliography Primary Sources Sigalovada Sutta of Digha Nikaya Dhammapala Jataka Story in Jataka Pali of Khuddaka Nikaya Secondary Sources What Buddhists Believe, chapter 12, K. Sri. Dhammananda Introduce by the constitution of the democratic socialist republic of Sri Lanka à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" chapter 1, article 12/01. Introduce by the constitution of the democratic socialist republic of Sri Lanka à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" chapter 1, article 12/02 [1] Sigalovada Sutta of Digha Nikaya [2] Hindu people consider as the highest God [3] Dhammapala jataka Story in Jataka Pali of Khuddaka Nikaya [4] Article 10th [5]Article 12th [6] Introduce by the constitution of the democratic socialist republic of Sri Lanka à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" chapter 1, article 12/01. [7] Introduce by the constitution of the democratic socialist republic of Sri Lanka à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" chapter 1, article 12/02

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Golden Compass Chapter Seven Free Essays

string(200) " finest leather jackets and blue spotted neckerchiefs, loaded their fingers with silver rings, and went to greet some old friends in the neighboring boats and drink a glass or two in the nearest bar\." Chapter Seven John Faa Now that Lyra had a task in mind, she felt much better. Helping Mrs. Coulter had been all very well, but Pantalaimon was right: she wasn’t really doing any work there, she was just a pretty pet. We will write a custom essay sample on The Golden Compass Chapter Seven or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the gyptian boat, there was real work to do, and Ma Costa made sure she did it. She cleaned and swept, she peeled potatoes and made tea, she greased the propeller shaft bearings, she kept the weed trap clear over the propeller, she washed dishes, she opened lock gates, she tied the boat up at mooring posts, and within a couple of days she was as much at home with this new life as if she’d been born gyptian. What she didn’t notice was that the Costas were alert every second for unusual signs of interest in Lyra from the waterside people. If she hadn’t realized it, she was important, and Mrs. Coulter and the Oblation Board were bound to be searching everywhere for her. Indeed, Tony heard from gos-sip in pubs along the way that the police were making raids on houses and farms and building yards and factories without any explanation, though there was a rumor that they were searching for a missing girl. And that in itself was odd, considering all the kids that had gone missing without being looked for. Gyptians and land folk alike were getting jumpy and nervous. And there was another reason for the Costas’ interest in Lyra; but she wasn’t to learn that for a few days yet. So they took to keeping her below decks when they passed a lockkeeper’s cottage or a canal basin, or anywhere there were likely to be idlers hanging about. Once they passed through a town where the police were searching all the boats that came along the waterway, and holding up the traffic in both directions. The Costas were equal to that, though. There was a secret compartment beneath Ma’s bunk, where Lyra lay cramped for two hours while the police banged up and down the length of the boat unsuccessfully. â€Å"Why didn’t their daemons find me, though?† she asked afterward, and Ma showed her the lining of the secret space: cedarwood, which had a soporific effect on daemons; and it was true that Pantalaimon had spent the whole time happily asleep by Lyra’s head. Slowly, with many halts and detours, the Costas’ boat drew nearer the fens, that wide and never fully mapped wilderness of huge skies and endless marshland in Eastern Anglia. The furthest fringe of it mingled indistinguishably with the creeks and tidal inlets of the shallow sea, and the other side of the sea mingled indistinguishably with Holland; and parts of the fens had been drained and dyked by Hollanders, some of whom had settled there; so the language of the fens was thick with Dutch. But parts had never been drained or planted or settled at all, and in the wildest central regions, where eels slithered and waterbirds flocked, where eerie marsh fires flick-ered and waylurkers tempted careless travelers to their doom in the swamps and bogs, the gyptian people had always found it safe to muster. And now by a thousand winding channels and creeks and watercourses, gyptian boats were moving in toward the byanplats, the only patch of slightly higher ground in the hundreds of square miles of marsh and bog. There was an ancient wooden meeting hall there with a huddle of permanent dwellings around it, and wharves and jetties and an eelmarket. When the gyptians called a byanroping – a summons or muster of families – so many boats filled the waterways that you could walk for a mile in any direction over their decks; or so it was said. The gyptians ruled in the fens. No one else dared enter, and while the gyptians kept the peace and traded fairly, the landlopers turned a blind eye to the incessant smuggling and the occasional feuds. If a gyptian body floated ashore down the coast, or got snagged in a fishnet, well – it was only a gyptian. Lyra listened enthralled to tales of the fen dwellers, of the great ghost dog Black Shuck, of the marsh fires arising from bubbles of witch oil, and began to think of herself as gyptian even before they reached the fens. She had soon slipped back into her Oxford voice, and now she was acquiring a gyptian one, complete with Fen-Dutch words. Ma Costa had to remind her of a few things. â€Å"You en’t gyptian, Lyra. You might pass for gyptian with practice, but there’s more to us than gyptian language. There’s deeps in us and strong currents. We’re water people all through, and you en’t, you’re a fire person. What you’re most like is marsh fire, that’s the place you have in the gyptian scheme; you got witch oil in your soul. Deceptive, that’s what you are, child.† Lyra was hurt. â€Å"I en’t never deceived anyone! You ask†¦Ã¢â‚¬  There was no one to ask, of course, and Ma Costa laughed, but kindly. â€Å"Can’t you see I’m a paying you a compliment, you gosling?† she said, and Lyra was pacified, though she didn’t understand. When they reached the byanplats it was evening, and the sun was about to set in a splash of bloody sky. The low island and the Zaal were humped blackly against the light, like the clustered buildings around; threads of smoke rose into the still air, and from the press of boats all around came the smells of frying fish, of smokeleaf, of jenniver spirit. They tied up close to the Zaal itself, at a mooring Tony said had been used by their family for generations. Presently Ma Costa had the frying pan going, with a couple of fat eels hissing and sputtering and the kettle on for potato powder. Tony and Kerim oiled their hair, put on their finest leather jackets and blue spotted neckerchiefs, loaded their fingers with silver rings, and went to greet some old friends in the neighboring boats and drink a glass or two in the nearest bar. You read "The Golden Compass Chapter Seven" in category "Essay examples" They came back with important news. â€Å"We got here just in time. The Roping’s this very night. And they’re a saying in the town – what d’you think of this? – they’re saying that the missing child’s on a gyptian boat, and she’s a going to appear tonight at the Roping!† He laughed loudly and ruffled Lyra’s hair. Ever since they’d entered the fens he had been more and more good tempered, as if the savage gloom his face showed outside were only a disguise. And Lyra felt an excitement growing in her breast as she ate quickly and washed the dishes before combing her hair, tucking the alethiometer into the wolfskin coat pocket, and jumping ashore with all the other families making their way up the slope to the Zaal. She had thought Tony was joking. She soon found that he wasn’t, or else that she looked less like a gyptian than she’d thought, for many people stared, and children pointed, and by the time they reached the great doors of the Zaal they were walking alone between a crowd on either side, who had fallen back to stare and give them room. And then Lyra began to feel truly nervous. She kept close to Ma Costa, and Pantalaimon became as big as he could and took his panther shape to reassure her. Ma Costa trudged up the steps as if nothing in the world could possibly either stop her or make her go more quickly, and Tony and Kerim walked proudly on either side like princes. The hall was lit by naphtha lamps, which shone brightly enough on the faces and bodies of the audience, but left the lofty rafters hidden in darkness. The people coming in had to struggle to find room on the floor, where the benches were already crowded; but families squeezed up to make space, children occupying laps and daemons curling up underfoot or perching out of the way on the rough wooden walls. At the front of the Zaal there was a platform with eight carved wooden chairs set out. As Lyra and the Costas found space to stand along the edge of the hall, eight men appeared from the shadows at the rear of the platform and stood in front of the chairs. A ripple of excitement swept over the audience as they hushed one another and shoved themselves into spaces on the nearest bench. Finally there was silence and seven of the men on the platform sat down. The one who remained was in his seventies, but tall and bull necked and powerful. He wore a plain canvas jacket and a checked shirt, like many gyptian men; there was nothing to mark him out but the air of strength and authority he had. Lyra recognized it: Uncle Asriel had it, and so did the Master of Jordan. This man’s daemon was a crow, very like the Master’s raven. â€Å"That’s John Faa, the lord of the western gyptians,† Tony whispered. John Faa began to speak, in a deep slow voice. â€Å"Gyptians! Welcome to the Roping. We’ve come to listen and come to decide. You all know why. There are many families here who’ve lost a child. Some have lost two. Someone is taking them. To be sure, landlopers are losing children too. We have no quarrel with landlopers over this. â€Å"Now there’s been talk about a child and a reward. Here’s the truth to stop all gossip. The child’s name is Lyra Belacqua, and she’s being sought by the landloper police. There is a reward of one thousand sovereigns for giving her up to them. She’s a landloper child, and she’s in our care, and there she’s going to stay. Anyone tempted by those thousand sovereigns had better find a place neither on land nor on water. We en’t giving her up.† Lyra felt a blush from the roots of her hair to the soles of her feet; Pantalaimon became a brown moth to hide. Eyes all around were turning to them, and she could only look up at Ma Costa for reassurance. But John Faa was speaking again: â€Å"Talk all we may, we won’t change owt. We must act if we want to change things. Here’s another fact for you: the Gobblers, these child thieves, are a taking their prisoners to a town in the far North, way up in the land of dark. I don’t know what they do with ’em there. Some folk say they kill ’em, other folk say different. We don’t know. â€Å"What we do know is that they do it with the help of the landloper police and the clergy. Every power on land is helping ’em. Remember that. They know what’s going on and they’ll help it whenever they can. â€Å"So what I’m proposing en’t easy. And I need your agreement. I’m proposing that we send a band of fighters up north to rescue them kids and bring ’em back alive. I’m proposing that we put our gold into this, and all the craft and courage we can muster. Yes, Raymond van Gerrit?† A man in the audience had raised his hand, and John Faa sat down to let him speak. â€Å"Beg pardon, Lord Faa. There’s landloper kids as well as gyptians been taken captive. Are you saying we should rescue them as well?† John Faa stood up to answer. â€Å"Raymond, are you saying we should fight our way through every kind of danger to a little group of frightened children, and then say to some of them that they can come home, and to the rest that they have to stay? No, you’re a better man than that. Well, do I have your approval, my friends?† The question caught them by surprise, for there was a moment’s hesitation; but then a full-throated roar filled the hall, and hands were clapped in the air, fists shaken, voices raised in excited clamor. The rafters of the Zaal shook, and from their perches up in the dark a score of sleeping birds woke up in fear and flapped their wings, and little showers of dust drifted down. John Faa let the noise continue for a minute, and then raised his hand for silence again. â€Å"This’ll take a while to organize. I want the heads of the families to raise a tax and muster a levy. We’ll meet again here in three days’ time. In between now and then I’m a going to talk with the child I mentioned before, and with Farder Coram, and form a plan to put before you when we meet. Goodnight to ye all.† His massive, plain, blunt presence was enough to calm them. As the audience began to move out of the great doors into the chilly evening, to go to their boats or to the crowded bars of the little settlement, Lyra said to Ma Costa: â€Å"Who are the other men on the platform?† â€Å"The heads of the six families, and the other man is Farder Coram.† It was easy to see who she meant by the other man, because he was the oldest one there. He walked with a stick, and all the time he’d been sitting behind John Faa he’d been trembling as if with an ague. â€Å"Come on,† said Tony. â€Å"I’d best take you up to pay your respects to John Faa. You call him Lord Faa. I don’t know what you’ll be asked, but mind you tell the truth.† Pantalaimon was a sparrow now, and sat curiously on Lyra’s shoulder, his claws deep in the wolfskin coat, as she followed Tony through the crowd up to the platform. He lifted her up. Knowing that everyone still in the hall was staring at her, and conscious of those thousand sovereigns she was suddenly worth, she blushed and hesitated. Pantalaimon darted to her breast and became a wildcat, sitting up in her arms and hissing softly as he looked around. Lyra felt a push, and stepped forward to John Faa. He was stern and massive and expressionless, more like a pillar of rock than a man, but he stooped and held out his hand to shake. When she put hers in, it nearly vanished. â€Å"Welcome, Lyra,† he said. Close to, she felt his voice rumbling like the earth itself. She would have been nervous but for Pantalaimon, and the fact that John Faa’s stony expression had warmed a little. He was treating her very gently. â€Å"Thank you, Lord Faa,† she said. â€Å"Now you come in the parley room and we’ll have a talk,† said John Faa. â€Å"Have they been feeding you proper, the Costas?† â€Å"Oh, yes. We had eels for supper.† â€Å"Proper fen eels, I expect.† The parley room was a comfortable place with a big fire, sideboards laden with silver and porcelain, and a heavy table darkly polished by the years, at which twelve chairs were drawn up. The other men from the platform had gone elsewhere, but the old shaking man was still with them. John Faa helped him to a seat at the table. â€Å"Now, you sit here on my right,† John Faa said to Lyra, and took the chair at the head of the table himself. Lyra found herself opposite Farder Coram. She was a little frightened by his skull-like face and his continual trembling. His daemon was a beautiful autumn-colored cat, massive in size, who stalked along the table with upraised tail and elegantly inspected Pantalaimon, touching noses briefly before settling on Farder Coram’s lap, half-closing her eyes and purring softly. A woman whom Lyra hadn’t noticed came out of the shadows with a tray of glasses, set it down by John Faa, curtsied, and left. John Faa poured little glasses of jenniver from a stone crock for himself and Farder Coram, and wine for Lyra. â€Å"So,† John Faa said. â€Å"You run away, Lyra.† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"And who was the lady you run away from?† â€Å"She was called Mrs. Coulter. And I thought she was nice, but I found out she was one of the Gobblers. I heard someone say what the Gobblers were, they were called the General Oblation Board, and she was in charge of it, it was all her idea. And they was all working on some plan, I dunno what it was, only they was going to make me help her get kids for ’em. But they never knew†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"They never knew what?† â€Å"Well, first they never knew that I knew some kids what had been took. My friend Roger the kitchen boy from Jordan College, and Billy Costa, and a girl out the covered market in Oxford. And another thing†¦My uncle, right, Lord Asriel. 1 heard them talking about his journeys to the North, and I don’t reckon he’s got anything to do with the Gobblers. Because I spied on the Master and the Scholars of Jordan, right, I hid in the Retiring Room where no one’s supposed to go except them, and I heard him tell them all about his expedition up north, and the Dust he saw, and he brought back the head of Stanislaus Grumman, what the Tartars had made a hole in. And now the Gobblers’ve got him locked up somewhere. The armored bears are guarding him. And I want to rescue him.† She looked fierce and stubborn as she sat there, small against the high carved back of the chair. The two old men couldn’t help smiling, but whereas Farder Coram’s smile was a hesitant, rich, complicated expression that trembled across his face like sunlight chasing shadows on a windy March day, John Faa’s smile was slow, warm, plain, and kindly. â€Å"You better tell us what you did hear your uncle say that evening,† said John Faa. â€Å"Don’t leave anything out, mind. Tell us everything.† Lyra did, more slowly than she’d told the Costas but more honestly, too. She was afraid of John Faa, and what she was most afraid of was his kindness. When she’d finished, Farder Coram spoke for the first time. His voice was rich and musical, with as many tones in it as there were colors in his daemon’s fur. â€Å"This Dust,† he said. â€Å"Did they ever call it anything else, Lyra?† â€Å"No. Just Dust. Mrs. Coulter told me what it was, elementary particles, but that’s all she called it.† â€Å"And they think that by doing something to children, they can find out more about it?† â€Å"Yes. But I don’t know what. Except my uncle†¦There’s something I forgot to tell you. When he was showing them lantern slides, there was another one he had. It was the Roarer – â€Å" â€Å"The what?† said John Faa. â€Å"The Aurora,† said Farder Coram. â€Å"Is that right, Lyra?† â€Å"Yeah, that’s it. And in the lights of the Roarer there was like a city. All towers and churches and domes and that. It was a bit like Oxford, that’s what I thought, anyway. And Uncle Asriel, he was more interested in that, I think, but the Master and the other Scholars were more interested in Dust, like Mrs. Coulter and Lord Boreal and them.† â€Å"I see,† said Farder Coram. â€Å"That’s very interesting.† â€Å"Now, Lyra,† said John Faa, â€Å"I’m a going to tell you something. Farder Coram here, he’s a wise man. He’s a seer. He’s been a follering all what’s been going on with Dust and the Gobblers and Lord Asriel and everything else, and he’s been a follering you. Every time the Costas went to Oxford, or half a dozen other families, come to that, they brought back a bit of news. About you, child. Did you know that?† Lyra shook her head. She was beginning to be frightened. Pantalaimon was growling too deep for anyone to hear, but she could feel it in her fingertips down inside his fur. â€Å"Oh, yes,† said John Faa, â€Å"all your doings, they all get back to Farder Coram here.† Lyra couldn’t hold it in. â€Å"We didn’t damage it! Honest! It was only a bit of mud! And we never got very far – â€Å" â€Å"What are you talking about, child?† said John Faa. Farder Coram laughed. When he did that, his shaking stopped and his face became bright and young. But Lyra wasn’t laughing. With trembling lips she said, â€Å"And even if we had found the bung, we’d never’ve took it out! It was just a joke. We wouldn’t’ve sunk it, never!† Then John Faa began to laugh too. He slapped a broad hand on the table so hard the glasses rang, and his massive shoulders shook, and he had to wipe away the tears from his eyes. Lyra had never seen such a sight, never heard such a bellow; it was like a mountain laughing. â€Å"Oh, yes,† he said when he could speak again, â€Å"we heard about that too, little girl! I don’t suppose the Costas have set foot anywhere since then without being reminded of it. You better leave a guard on your boat, Tony, people say. Fierce little girls round here! Oh, that story went all over the fens, child. But we en’t going to punish you for it. No, no! Ease your mind.† He looked at Farder Coram, and the two old men laughed again, but more gently. And Lyra felt contented, and safe. Finally John Faa shook his head and became serious again. â€Å"I were saying, Lyra, as we knew about you from a child. From a baby. You oughter know what we know. I can’t guess what they told you at Jordan College about where you came from, but they don’t know the whole truth of it. Did they ever tell you who your parents were?† Now Lyra was completely dazed. â€Å"Yes,† she said. â€Å"They said I was – they said they – they said Lord Asriel put me there because my mother and father died in an airship accident. That’s what they told me.† â€Å"Ah, did they. Well now, child, I’m a going to tell you a story, a true story. I know it’s true, because a gyptian woman told me, and they all tell the truth to John Faa and Farder Coram. So this is the truth about yourself, Lyra. Your father never perished in no airship accident, because your father is Lord Asriel.† Lyra could only sit in wonder. â€Å"Here’s how it came about,† John Faa went on. â€Å"When he was a young man, Lord Asriel went exploring all over the North, and came back with a great fortune. And he was a high-spirited man, quick to anger, a passionate man. â€Å"And your mother, she was passionate too. Not so well born as him, but a clever woman. A Scholar, even, and those who saw her said she was very beautiful. She and your father, they fell in love as soon’s they met. â€Å"The trouble was, your mother was already married. She’d married a politician. He was a member of the king’s party, one of his closest advisers. A rising man. â€Å"Now when your mother found herself with child, she feared to tell her husband the child wasn’t his. And when the baby was born – that’s you, girl – it was clear from the look of you that you didn’t favor her husband, but your true father, and she thought it best to hide you away and give out that you’d died. â€Å"So you was took to Oxfordshire, where your father had estates, and put in the care of a gyptian woman to nurse. But someone whispered to your mother’s husband what had happened, and he came a flying down and ransacked the cottage where the gyptian woman had been, only she’d fled to the great house; and the husband followed after, in a murderous passion. â€Å"Lord Asriel was out a hunting, but they got word to him and he came riding back in time to find your mother’s husband at the foot of the great staircase. Another moment and he’d have forced open the closet where the gyptian woman was hiding with you, but Lord Asriel challenged him, and they fought there and then, and Lord Asriel killed him. â€Å"The gyptian woman heard and saw it all, Lyra, and that’s how we know. â€Å"The consequence was a great lawsuit. Your father en’t the kind of man to deny or conceal the truth, and it left the judges with a problem. He’d killed all right, he’d shed blood, but he was defending his home and his child against an intruder. On t’other hand, the law allows any man to avenge the violation of his wife, and the dead man’s lawyers argued that he were doing just that. â€Å"The case lasted for weeks, with volumes of argument back and forth. In the end the judges punished Lord Asriel by confiscating all his property and all his land, and left him a poor man; and he had been richer than a king. â€Å"As for your mother, she wanted nothing to do with it, nor with you. She turned her back. The gyptian nurse told me she’d often been afeared of how your mother would treat you, because she was a proud and scornful woman. So much for her. â€Å"Then there was you. If things had fallen out different, Lyra, you might have been brought up a gyptian, because the nurse begged the court to let her have you; but we gyptians got little standing in the law. The court decided you was to be placed in a priory, and so you were, with the Sisters of Obedience at Watlington. You won’t remember. â€Å"But Lord Asriel wouldn’t stand for that. He had a hatred of priors and monks and nuns, and being a high-handed man he just rode in one day and carried you off. Not to look after himself, nor to give to the gyptians; he took you to Jordan College, and dared the law to undo it. â€Å"Well, the law let things be. Lord Asriel went back to his explorations, and you grew up at Jordan College. The one thing he said, your father, the one condition he made, was that your mother shouldn’t be let see you. If she ever tried to do that, she was to be prevented, and he was to be told, because all the anger in his nature had turned against her now. The Master promised faithfully to do that; and so time passed. â€Å"Then come all this anxiety about Dust. And all over the country, all over the world, wise men and women too began a worrying about it. It weren’t of any account to us gyptians, until they started taking our kids. That’s when we got interested. And we got connections in all sorts of places you wouldn’t imagine, including Jordan College. You wouldn’t know, but there’s been someone a watching over you and reporting to us ever since you been there. ‘Cause we got an interest in you, and that gyptian woman who nursed you, she never stopped being anxious on your behalf.† â€Å"Who was it watching over me?† said Lyra. She felt immensely important and strange, that all her doings should be an object of concern so far away. â€Å"It was a kitchen servant. It was Bernie Johansen, the pastry cook. He’s half-gyptian; you never knew that, I’ll be bound.† Bernie was a kindly, solitary man, one of those rare people whose daemon was the same sex as himself. It was Bernie she’d shouted at in her despair when Roger was taken. And Bernie had been telling the gyptians everything! She marveled. â€Å"So anyway,† John Faa went on, â€Å"we heard about you going away from Jordan College, and how it came about at a time when Lord Asriel was imprisoned and couldn’t prevent it. And we remembered what he’d said to the Master that he must never do, and we remembered that the man your mother had married, the politician Lord Asriel killed, was called Edward Coulter.† â€Å"Mrs. Coulter?† said Lyra, quite stupefied. â€Å"She en’t my mother?† â€Å"She is. And if your father had been free, she wouldn’t never have dared to defy him, and you’d still be at Jordan, not knowing a thing. But what the Master was a doing letting you go is a mystery I can’t explain. He was charged with your care. All I can guess is that she had some power over him.† Lyra suddenly understood the Master’s curious behavior on the morning she’d left. â€Å"But he didn’t want to†¦Ã¢â‚¬  she said, trying to remember it exactly. â€Å"He†¦I had to go and see him first thing that morning, and I mustn’t tell Mrs. Coulter†¦.It was like he wanted to protect me from her†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She stopped, and looked at the two men carefully, and then decided to tell them the whole truth about the Retiring Room. â€Å"See, there was something else. That evening I hid in the Retiring Room, I saw the Master try to poison Lord Asriel. I saw him put some powder in the wine and I told my uncle and he knocked the decanter off the table and spilled it. So I saved his life. I could never understand why the Master would want to poison him, because he was always so kind. Then on the morning I left he called me in early to his study, and I had to go secretly so no one would know, and he said†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Lyra racked her brains to try and remember exactly what it was the Master had said. No good; she shook her head. â€Å"The only thing I could understand was that he gave me something and I had to keep it secret from her, from Mrs. Coulter. I suppose it’s all right if I tell you†¦.† She felt in the pocket of the wolfskin coat and took out the velvet package. She laid it on the table, and she sensed John Faa’s massive simple curiosity and Farder Coram’s bright flickering intelligence both trained on it like searchlights. When she laid the alethiometer bare, it was Farder Coram who spoke first. â€Å"I never thought I’d ever set eyes on one of them again. That’s a symbol reader. Did he tell you anything about it, child?† â€Å"No. Only that I’d have to work out how to read it by myself. And he called it an alethiometer.† â€Å"What’s that mean?† said John Faa, turning to his companion. â€Å"That’s a Greek word. I reckon it’s from aktheia, which means truth. It’s a truth measure. And have you worked out how to use it?† he said to her. â€Å"No. Least, I can make the three short hands point to different pictures, but I can’t do anything with the long one. It goes all over. Except sometimes, right, sometimes when I’m sort of concentrating, I can make the long needle go this way or that just by thinking it.† â€Å"What’s it do, Farder Coram?† said John Faa. â€Å"And how do you read it?† â€Å"All these pictures round the rim,† said Farder Coram, holding it delicately toward John Faa’s blunt strong gaze, â€Å"they’re symbols, and each one stands for a whole series of things. Take the anchor, there. The first meaning of that is hope, because hope holds you fast like an anchor so you don’t give way. The second meaning is steadfastness. The third meaning is snag, or prevention. The fourth meaning is the sea. And so on, down to ten, twelve, maybe a never-ending series of meanings.† â€Å"And do you know them all?† â€Å"I know some, but to read it fully I’d need the book. I seen the book and I know where it is, but I en’t got it.† â€Å"We’ll come back to that,† said John Faa. â€Å"Go on with how you read it.† â€Å"You got three hands you can control,† Farder Coram explained, â€Å"and you use them to ask a question. By pointing to three symbols you can ask any question you can imagine, because you’ve got so many levels of each one. Once you got your question framed, the other needle swings round and points to more symbols that give you the answer.† â€Å"But how does it know what level you’re a thinking of when you set the question?† said John Faa. â€Å"Ah, by itself it don’t. It only works if the questioner holds the levels in their mind. You got to know all the meanings, first, and there must be a thousand or more. Then you got to be able to hold ’em in your mind without fretting at it or pushing for an answer, and just watch while the needle wanders. When it’s gone round its full range, you’ll know what the answer is. I know how it works because I seen it done once by a wise man in Uppsala, and that’s the only time I ever saw one before. Do you know how rare these are?† â€Å"The Master told me there was only six made,† Lyra said. â€Å"Whatever the number, it en’t large.† â€Å"And you kept this secret from Mrs. Coulter, like the Master told you?† said John Faa. â€Å"Yes. But her daemon, right, he used to go in my room. And I’m sure he found it.† â€Å"I see. Well, Lyra, I don’t know if we’ll ever understand the full truth, but this is my guess, as good as I can make it. The Master was given a charge by Lord Asriel to look after you and keep you safe from your mother. And that was what he did, for ten years or more. Then Mrs. Coulter’s friends in the Church helped her set up this Oblation Board, for what purpose we don’t know, and there she was, as powerful in her way as Lord Asriel was in his. Your parents, both strong in the world, both ambitious, and the Master of Jordan holding you in the balance between them. â€Å"Now the Master’s got a hundred things to look after. His first concern is his College and the scholarship there. So if he sees a threat to that, he has to move agin it. And the Church in recent times, Lyra, it’s been a getting more commanding. There’s councils for this and councils for that; there’s talk of reviving the Office of Inquisition, God forbid. And the Master has to tread warily between all these powers. He has to keep Jordan College on the right side of the Church, or it won’t survive. â€Å"And another concern of the Master is you, child. Bernie Johansen was always clear about that. The Master of Jordan and the other Scholars, they loved you like their own child. They’d do anything to keep you safe, not just because they’d promised to Lord Asriel that they would, but for your own sake. So if the Master gave you up to Mrs. Coulter when he’d promised Lord Asriel he wouldn’t, he must have thought you’d be safer with her than in Jordan College, in spite of all appearances. And when he set out to poison Lord Asriel, he must have thought that what Lord Asriel was a doing would place all of them in danger, and maybe all of us, too; maybe all the world. I see the Master as a man having terrible choices to make; whatever he chooses will do harm, but maybe if he does the right thing, a little less harm will come about than if he chooses wrong. God preserve me from having to make that sort of choice. â€Å"And when it come to the point where he had to let you go, he gave you the symbol reader and bade you keep it safe. I wonder what he had in mind for you to do with it; as you couldn’t read it, I’m foxed as to what he was a thinking.† â€Å"He said Uncle Asriel presented the alethiometer to Jordan College years before,† Lyra said, struggling to remember. â€Å"He was going to say something else, and then someone knocked at the door and he had to stop. What I thought was, he might have wanted me to keep it away from Lord Asriel too.† â€Å"Or even the opposite,† said John Faa. â€Å"What d’you mean, John?† said Farder Coram. â€Å"He might have had it in mind to ask Lyra to return it to Lord Asriel, as a kind of recompense for trying to poison him. He might have thought the danger from Lord Asriel had passed. Or that Lord Asriel could read some wisdom from this instrument and hold back from his purpose. If Lord Asriel’s held captive now, it might help set him free. Well, Lyra, you better take this symbol reader and keep it safe. If you kept it safe so far, I en’t worried about leaving it with you. But there might come a time when we need to consult it, and I reckon we’ll ask for it then.† He folded the velvet over it and slid it back across the table. Lyra wanted to ask all kinds of questions, but suddenly she felt shy of this massive man, with his little eyes so sharp and kindly among their folds and wrinkles. One thing she had to ask, though. â€Å"Who was the gyptian woman who nursed me ?† â€Å"Why, it was Billy Costa’s mother, of course. She won’t have told you, because I en’t let her, but she knows what we’re a talking of here, so it’s all out in the open. â€Å"Now you best be getting back to her. You got plenty to be a thinking of, child. When three days is gone past, we’ll have another roping and discuss all there is to do. You be a good girl. Goodnight, Lyra.† â€Å"Goodnight, Lord Faa. Goodnight, Farder Coram,† she said politely, clutching the alethiometer to her breast with one hand and scooping up Pantalaimon with the other. Both old men smiled kindly at her. Outside the door of the parley room Ma Costa was waiting, and as if nothing had happened since Lyra was born, the boat mother gathered her into her great arms and kissed her before bearing her off to bed. How to cite The Golden Compass Chapter Seven, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Purpose To see if their is an effect on golf ball Essay Example For Students

Purpose: To see if their is an effect on golf ball Essay s after being soaked in water?Independent Variable: My three different brands of golf balls. Dependent Variable: Will water seep in or not and if it seeps in will it have aneffect on the golf balls distance. Control: My unsoaked golf balls. Reasearch: Per information sent to me by Titleist: Exposing a golf ball to waterhas a negative effect on the golf balls performance. On average, after one weeksubmerged in water, a two piece golf ball will lose 6 yards off a drive. The loss ofperformance for wound construction is even more significant, averaging a loss ofdistance of up to 9 yards. The History of the Golf Ball: The first ever golf ball was called the Feathery andintroduced in the 1400s it was a stitched leather pouch soaked and then stuffedwith goose feathers. Upon drying, the feathers expanded and the leathercontracted, forming an extremely hard mass. This was hammered round andpainted white. The feathery sometimes flew over 300 yards and was durable untilit got wet. Then it would split open. The Gutta percha was introduced in 1850 andwas made of a rubberlike sap from the Malaysian sapdilla tree. The material washeated to soften it and then hand-formed into a solid, one piece ball.Gutta perchawas black, so the early balls were painted white. Easier to make, less expensive,and more durable, the gutta revolutionized golf. When golfers discovered thatballs and nicks flew longer and straighter then new ones, manufactures began togive them a textured, even pattern surface. The most popular early pattern was thebramble, which featured raised round bumps in concentr ic circles. the first woundrubber ball was introduced in 1898. the three-piece Haskell was the first ball tomix distance and control. Cleveland entrepreneur Coburn Haskell, with AkronBFGoodrich engineer Bertram Work, wound continuous rubber thread underextreme tension around a small, solid rubber core, and wrapped the result in agutta percha cover. Balata rubber soon replaced gutta percha, and dimples firstappeared in 1909. The first two piece golf ball was introduced in 1968 by RobertMolitor a Spalding researcher who developed a ball consisting of a solid centerwith a tough thermoplastic cover. The two-piece ball sacrificed control fordistance but has improved so much that today it represents 70% of all golf ballproduction. Interesting facts about dimples: Through my research I have found that even theslightest change in a dimple pattern could cause you to lose many yards off of yourshot. By adding 0.001 inch to a dimples depth could boost a drive length by 15yards. Hitting a shot 250 yards without dimples could only go about 125 yards. Shallow dimples allow the ball to fly higher but without much roll at the end. Deeper dimples create more turbulence and flatten the arc of the golf balls drive. Dimples disrupt the flow of air around the ball, thereby decreasing drag, or theairs resistance to the balls movement through it. The dimples enhance lift as theballs spin increases the air velocity over the ball and reduces it below the ball. Air pressure thus is created underneath and a vacuumlike condition above, similarto the lift generated by the wings of a plane in flight.More important than thenumber of dimples is their coverage the amount of a balls surface that is dimpledand how they are distributed. The goal is more uniform dimple coverage. About70 to 80% of the golf ball is covered in dimples. The majority of dimple designstoday are based on the icosahedralpattern which Titleist introduced in 1973. Thispattern divided the cover into 20 identical triangular faces. Titleist experimentswith some 50 to 100 dimple patterns a year and has eight in current production. In 1909 spalding invented the first ball with dimples and now make three basicdimple patterns. Even the shape of dimples have changed over the years. Nolonger are they all round. Wilsons truncated cone dimple design features a flatbottom and sidewalls, for reduced drag. Bullet and Aero which I used in myproject have new dimple designs. On Bullets new ball one third of the dimples aresquare for increased backspin and Aero a brand new ball made by Top Flight hasround and tear drop dimples. Aeros tear drop shaped dimple design reducesinefficient areas of the dimple which cause drag. Less drag equals more distance. Until 1983 most golf balls had 324 or 336 dimples. The introduction of Titleist 384led to a dimple race among manufactures. It reached a peak when Excalibur GolfCo. introduced a golf ball with 812 dimples the most ever on a golf ball. Theimportant factor is coverage, no t count. There is no magic number it is how theyare put on the golf ball. 812 did not mean a golf ball would go any farther youcould get sop many that you are back to a smooth ball. The most efficient numberof dimples is 320 to 420. The average amount of dimples today is about 400. Some companies now are using software to design there dimple patterns. Aerodynamics: It was nearly the turn of the century before anyone realized thetremendous significance of aerodynamic forces for golf ball performance. Aperson who could drive the ball 200 yards in the air under normal circumstanceswould be hard pressed to beat 140 on the moon where there is no air. This is inspite of the fact that the latter case eliminates all the deleterious effects of windresistance, known to aerodynamicists as drag. Unfortunately, it also eliminatesthe vast beneficial effects of lift, the same aerodynamic force that keeps airplanesin the air. A properly designed golf ball uses these two forces in concert toproduce a remarkable degree of air worthiness, considering the less the sleekprofile of a typical golf ball. .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 , .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .postImageUrl , .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 , .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:hover , .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:visited , .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:active { border:0!important; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:active , .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55 .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u074156e66a06cc97e0a85f4b27669e55:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: 12 Angry Men EssayHypothesis: I predict that unsoaked golf balls will reach further distances than thesoaked balls because of my extensive research on this topic. Experiment: Built apparatus to strike golf balls at consistent speeds. Soaked threedifferent brands of golf balls in water for three weeks. Took three soaked balls andthree matching unsoaked balls and conducted my study. After hitting each ballwith my apparatus four times I measured the distance each ball traveled to thequarter inch. After hitting each ball I marked it with a piece of masking tape anddocumented each onto a separate sheet of graph paper. Material List: 24 woodScrewsSluge HammerMetal RodeSoaked Golf BallsUnsoaked Golf BallTeesPaper Cup2 Hose FastenersResults: Through my research I have found some very interesting results. I havefound that Areo went the furthest of the three balls that I tested. Aeros unsoakedgolf balls went 96 5 after averaging the four tests, and its soaked golf ball went94 4 a difference of 2 1. After averaging Titleists unsoaked golf balls I cameup with the figure 95 4 and its soaked golf balls came out to 93 even, adifference of 1 8. After testing the third and final golf balls, Bullet, I came upwith the totals being rather consistent with the others. The unsoaked Bullet golfballs went further once more with a distance of 95 3and its matching soakedgolf balls went a shorter distance again with a distance of 92 5and its differencecame out to be 2 8. According to my research my findings are very consistentwith the information that I have received from the Titliest Corporation. A twopiece golf ball w ill lose 6 yards off of a average drive after just one weeksubmerged in water. Conclusion: Through my reasearch I have concluded that unsoaked golf balls willtravel further distances then golf balls that have been soaked in water. I have alsofound that an unsoaked golf ball will travel about 2.3% more then a soaked golfball. Ill tell you one thing, this project was an awsome learning experience,another way to beat my golf buddys on the course, every advantage helps in thisgame. Bibliography1. All This For A Golf Ball, Dimples Create Engineering Challenge, Evolution Of The Golf Ball,The Effect Of Altitude, Temperature, and Humidity On The Flight Of A Golf Ball, 11/3/97,Titliest And Foot-Joy Wordwide pg.3-5-7-9. 2. Aerodynamic Basic, The Dimple Patterns, New Trends In Golf Balls, 11/9/97, Wilson SportingGoods, Co. Golf Division, pg.2-9. 3. Spalding Firsts, Spalding Fact Golf Book, 11/7/97, Spalding Co., pg.4-5. 4.The effect that water has on an golf balls distance, Julie Haek, Precept, Bridge Stone,11/15/97. 5. Titliest,11/12/97 on America Online, http://www.Titliest.com. 6.Dimple Designs, Bill Richards, Dimple Designer, Titliest And Foot-Joy Worldwide, 11/11